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The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714.The last British monarch who ruled in Hanover was William IV.It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, and was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it.Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine, Ruhr and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover.The Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg were elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, and this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708.The Congress of Vienna in 1815 elevated the electorate to the Kingdom of Hanover.The capital town Hanover expanded to the western bank of the Leine and since then has grown considerably.
At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become a Kingdom with Hanover as its capital.Hanover is of national importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport and its large zoo.The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways (Autobahnen), connecting European main lines in both the east-west (Berlin–Ruhr area) and north-south (Hamburg–Munich, etc.) directions. The German spelling (with a double n) is becoming more popular in English; recent editions of encyclopaedias prefer the German spelling, Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine.Her descendants, however, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently also Electoral Princes of Hanover.