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In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population.
Specifically within the year 1636, it is roughly estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the then population of Newcastle died from the epidemic; this may also have been the most devastating loss in any British City in this period.
Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA.
The city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production; unexpectedly he made a considerable profit.
They were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere.
In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn.
In 1644, the Scots then captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. It was eventually stormed ("with roaring drummes") and sacked by Cromwell's allies.